The daily nutritional requirements for adults
Daily nutritional requirements for the human body encompass the essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water needed to maintain optimal health and sustain bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors like age, gender, activity level, and overall health. Meeting these needs promotes well-being and supports vital bodily processes. The following information is suitable for a demographic aged 18 to 55, encompassing individuals in good health.
I. Fundamental Nutritional Elements
Protein: The daily intake of protein should constitute 10% of the total caloric intake, with a recommended daily intake range of 55 to 65 grams.
Carbohydrates: The intake of carbohydrates should align with individual caloric needs, comprising 45% to 55% of the total caloric intake, not falling below 20%.
Lipids: Daily fat intake should not exceed 25% to 30% of the total caloric intake. For women, the intake should range from 55 to 65 grams, while for men, it should not exceed 90 grams per day.
Dietary Fiber: Daily recommended intake is 20 to 30 grams. Following a standard of 10 grams of dietary fiber per 100 kilocalories, increment the amount gradually.
Water: Adult daily total water requirement is 30 to 45cc per kilogram of body weight, and the actual supplementation should be adjusted according to individual needs.
Adult males should have an intake of approximately 5,000 IU daily, while females should aim for 4,200 IU. IU (International Units). Daily intake of β-carotene should be around 6-15 milligrams. It maintains healthy skin, hair, and gums, normal vision, immune system functionality, aids bone growth, and promotes development.
Harm of Vitamin A Deficiency: Impaired normal bone growth.
Rich sources of Vitamin A: Liver, milk, butter, fish liver oil, ginseng, spinach.
Adult males should consume 1.2-1.5 milligrams daily, while females should aim for 1-1.1 milligrams.
Harm of Deficiency: Edema, numbness.
Rich sources of Vitamin B1: Spirulina, brown rice, nuts, yeast.
Adult males should have a daily intake of 1.2-1.8 milligrams, and females should aim for 1-1.5 milligrams. It aids in the metabolism of nutrients and serves as a beauty vitamin.
Harm of Deficiency: Corneal inflammation, angular stomatitis, skin inflammation, light sensitivity.
Rich sources of Vitamin B2: Cheese, meat, organ meats, green leafy vegetables.
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 14-22 milligrams, while females should strive for 12-17 milligrams, in the form of niacin. It aids in DNA synthesis.
Rich sources of Vitamin B3: Fish, chicken, pork liver, yellow-green vegetables, legumes, whole grain products, eggs, cheese.
Adults should consume 4-7 milligrams daily, which can be increased to 5-9 milligrams during pregnancy and lactation (pantothenic acid).
Harm of Deficiency: Hypoglycemia, abnormal blood and skin, fatigue, depression, insomnia, loss of appetite.
Rich sources of Vitamin B5: Germ, brown rice, bran, peas, peanuts, lentils.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 200 micrograms, with an upper limit of 1 milligram. It aids in DNA synthesis, prevents heart attacks and cancer. Adequate intake by pregnant women promotes the development of fetal nerve cells and enhances milk secretion.
Harm of Deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, tongue ulcers, weakness, insomnia.
Rich sources of Vitamin B9: Fresh green vegetables, liver, kidney, lean meat, bananas.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 3 micrograms. It helps prevent anemia and supports nucleic acid synthesis.
Harm of Deficiency: Anemia, digestive disorders.
Rich sources of Vitamin B12: Beef, cheese, eggs, milk, tofu, liver.
Adults should have a daily intake of 60-100 milligrams. It combats pathogens and stress, improving skin conditions.
Harm of Deficiency: Scurvy, loose teeth, slow wound healing.
Rich sources of Vitamin C: Dark green and yellow-red vegetables, fruits, kiwi, lemon.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of about 5-7.5 micrograms. When consumed with Vitamin A, C, choline, calcium, and phosphorus, it complements them, also known as the sunshine vitamin.
Harm of Vitamin D Deficiency: Poor bone and teeth health, osteoporosis.
Rich sources of Vitamin D: Cod liver oil, eggs, butter, fish, liver, fortified fresh milk, (sunlight converts subcutaneous cholesterol to Vitamin D).
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 12 milligrams, while females should strive for 10 milligrams. It maintains vascular health, prevents cancer, and counteracts cellular oxidation, treating infertility.
Harm of Deficiency: Insufficient Vitamin E can lead to hemolytic anemia.
Rich sources of Vitamin E: Plant oils, whole grains, pumpkins.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 100-200 milligrams (biotin). It aids in the formation of fatty acids.
Harm of Deficiency: Skin inflammation, loss of appetite, nausea, anemia, dandruff, and hair loss.
Rich sources of Vitamin H: Pork liver, sardines, brown rice, nuts, unrefined cereals.
Adults should aim for about 65-80 milligrams, with a recommended intake of 1 milligram per kilogram of body weight.
It assists women in maintaining normal brain, nerve, and skin function, supporting the normal functioning of the nervous system and brain.
Harm of Deficiency: Nausea, depression, skin inflammation.
Rich sources of Vitamin B6: Meat, fish, vegetables, yeast, malt, liver.
During adolescence to age 25, adult males should aim for a daily intake of 800 milligrams, while females should target 700 milligrams; above 25 years, the recommended daily intake should be around 600 milligrams. Essential for the formation of bones and teeth.
Harm of Deficiency: Reduces bone density, osteoporosis, skeletal deformities, fractures.
Rich sources of Calcium (Ca): Dairy products, dark green vegetables, legumes.
Adults should strive for a daily intake of 600 milligrams. When calcium intake is insufficient, bone loss occurs.
Harm of Deficiency: Skeletal and developmental issues, arthritis, obesity, nervousness, fatigue, loss of appetite.
Rich sources of Phosphorus: Poultry, fish, meat, dried fruits, milk, bran, germ.
Adults should target a daily intake of 2,000 milligrams. Maintains a regular heartbeat and helps prevent strokes.
Harm of Deficiency: High blood pressure, susceptibility to heatstroke, fatigue. (Those who consume coffee, alcohol, and sweets are more likely to be deficient.)
Rich sources of Potassium: Dried persimmons, vegetables.
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 360 milligrams, while females should strive for 315 milligrams. Essential for bone and teeth structure.
Harm of Deficiency: Lack of magnesium can disrupt nerves. Prolonged use of diuretics or alcohol consumption can lead to magnesium deficiency.
Rich sources of Magnesium: Vegetables, fish, bananas, whole grains, lean meat, dairy products, legumes.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 2-4 grams. Aids in normal blood pressure, nerve, and muscle function.
Harm of Deficiency: Lack of sodium can cause symptoms like drowsiness, low blood sugar, palpitations, and high blood pressure.
Rich sources of Sodium: eggs, meat and dairy products.
Recommended daily nutrient intake (RDNA) is above 200 milligrams per day. The daily salt intake for the average person should be less than 8-10 grams.
Harm of Deficiency: When any of the three elements—potassium, sodium, or chlorine—are deficient, growth can be stunted.
Rich sources of Chlorine: Salt, seaweed, wheat flour, olives, dairy, meat.
Recommended daily nutrient intake (RDNA) is above 200 milligrams per day. Essential for the formation of hair, cartilage, insulin, and other vital components.
Harm of Deficiency: Edema, slow growth and development, slow heartbeat, loss of appetite.
Rich sources of Sulfur: Eggs, dairy, lean meats, legumes, nuts.
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 10 milligrams, while females should strive for 15 milligrams. A major component of blood, essential for hemoglobin production. Also crucial for child growth and disease resistance, preventing anemia.
Harm of Deficiency: Anemia, fatigue, weakened immunity, stunted growth.
Rich sources of Iron: Liver and organ meats, egg yolk, milk, lean meat, shellfish, seaweed, legumes.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 1.6-3 milligrams. Combines with iron and hemoglobin to improve anemia.
Harm of Deficiency: Affects bone structure and causes anemia.
Rich sources of Copper: Liver, oysters, sesame, lean meat, nuts.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 90-140 micrograms.
A vital component of thyroglobulin, reducing cholesterol levels, promoting fat burning, and aiding weight loss.
Harm of Deficiency: Enlarged thyroid gland, obesity, affecting child development.
Rich sources of Iodine: Seaweed, seafood, meat, eggs, dairy, grains, green leafy vegetables.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 3.5-4 milligrams.
Harm of Deficiency: Affects bone formation, reduces hormone synthesis and reproductive capacity, sexual function decline.
Rich sources of Manganese: Bran, nuts, legumes, lettuce, pineapples.
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 15 milligrams, while females should strive for 12 milligrams.
Helps in the growth of new skin, cell regeneration, and strengthens the immune system. Known as a vitality mineral, aiding prostate function and reproductive organ development.
Harm of Deficiency: Underdevelopment, prostate abnormalities, hindering RNA, DNA generation, declining sexual function.
Rich sources of Zinc: Seafood, beef, lamb, eggs, fish, unrefined grains, nuts.
Only a trace amount is needed in daily diet, an essential trace mineral for the body.
Harm of Deficiency: Anemia, nausea, gum bleeding, loss of appetite, weight loss.
Rich sources of Cobalt: Green leafy vegetables, animal liver, kidneys, buckwheat.
A daily intake of 20 milligrams or more is recommended. An essential component for bones and teeth. Effectively strengthens dental enamel, preventing tooth decay.
Harm of Deficiency: Anemia, poor growth and development, reduced reproductive ability. Causes loss of gloss in teeth.
Rich sources of Fluorine: Almonds, tea, apples, milk, eggs, honey, malt, spinach, daily drinking water.
Adult males should aim for a daily intake of 30-35 micrograms, while females should strive for 20-25 micrograms. Activates insulin, known as the slimming mineral. Significant for diabetics and those with low blood sugar levels.
Harm of Deficiency: Impaired carbohydrate metabolism, severe cases may cause diabetes and arteriosclerosis.
Rich sources of Chromium: Grains, legumes, meats, nuts.
Adults should aim for a daily intake of 50 micrograms, with an upper limit of 400 micrograms.
Independently or in combination with Vitamin E, it becomes an effective antioxidant, maintaining youthfulness and aiding in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes in women. Also associated with hair growth.
Harm of Deficiency: Selenium deficiency leads to premature aging, and severe deficiency can even cause heart muscle diseases like heart failure.
Rich sources of Selenium: Bamboo shoots, meats, vegetables, rice bran.
IV. Amino Acids
Isoleucine: Maintains bodily balance and treats mental disorders.
Leucine: Growth halts and weight decreases if deficient.
Lysine: Enhances immune function, improves development, and promotes bone growth.
Methionine: Enhances muscle vitality.
Phenylalanine: Facilitates the synthesis of thyroxine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.
Threonine: Essential for the body; deficiency leads to emaciation and even death.
Tryptophan: Promotes the synthesis of hemoglobin.
Valine: Facilitates normal functioning of the nervous system.
Note: The mentioned amino acids are essential and cannot be synthesized within the body. Prolonged deficiency can lead to fatality. Amino acids interact with each other, and the absence of any one can render the others ineffective. Click here read full all benefits and foods of 9 essential amino acids.
【Note 1】 Generally, for adults, daily calorie needs are based on weight and activity level. Women require approximately 1500-1800 kcal (kilocalories) per day, while men need around 2000-2300 kcal.
【Note 2】 Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The human body has about 22 amino acids, and 9 of them are referred to as "essential amino acids."
【Note 3】 Vitamins are categorized into water-soluble (B-group vitamins and vitamin C) and fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Water-soluble vitamins are easily destroyed during cooking processes.
【Note 4】 The International Unit (I.U.) is the measurement unit used to assess the content of vitamins A and D, two essential nutrients.